Physicists began to synthesize superheavy elements of the eighth period of the periodic table

A team of Japanese nuclear physicists began experimenting with collisions between small and large atomic nuclei to synthesize new superheavy elements and discover new chemistry.

So far, scientists have managed to create all the elements in the first seven rows. – from hydrogen with one proton to oganesson, which has 118. Further research is hampered by the instability of superheavy elements due to the large number of protons. For example, the most stable isotope of nionium (113 protons) has a half-life of almost eight seconds, while for oganesson it is about 0.7 ms..

However, theorists believe that this figure may change for more massive nuclei, which will allow to obtain long-lived superheavy elements that will open up a new type of chemistry with longer reactions. To do this, scientists first need to know the repulsive force that the nuclei experience when approaching.

A team of researchers from Japan’s Institute for Physico-Chemical Research (RIKEN) said they have already begun experiments to collide small nuclei of neon, magnesium and calcium with larger atoms of curium and uranium, measuring how they scatter. Scientists estimate that the synthesis of one atom of a superactinoid will take more than three months..

 

Physicists began to synthesize superheavy elements of the eighth period of the periodic table

If the observed tendencies of the repulsive barrier and deformation are also valid for heavier nuclei, then the calculation of the optimal collision energy will take about a day. In the short term, the team plans to use this knowledge to create new elements. under the numbers 119 and 120. However, it will take at least a decade to discover stable isotopes of superheavy nuclei of the eighth period, since they will have unusual properties.

We also previously reported on the development of a new nuclear fusion method. using relativistic effects.

text: Ilya Bauer, photo: RIKEN, Getty Images

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New camouflage material hides objects from infrared cameras

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Researchers have discovered a material with quantum properties that can mask the thermal radiation of objects, making them invisible to infrared cameras.

In recent years, scientists have developed several graphene and black silicon materials that manipulate electromagnetic radiation to hide the thermal signature. However, the new quantum material does this in a completely unique way, which contradicts intuition, but not the laws of physics..

New camouflage material hides objects from infrared cameras

A group of materials scientists from the University of Wisconsin at Madison and Purdue University studied the properties of samarium nickel oxide, which, as temperature rises, transforms from an insulator into an unusual conductor. In the course of experiments, scientists found that thanks to this property, the material is able to separate temperature and thermal radiation..

When in the laboratory they heated a film of samarium nickel oxide on sapphire substrates, then, despite the actual increase in temperature, its infrared radiation remained practically unchanged. within a certain temperature range. Moreover, between 105 °C and 135 °C it barely warmed up at all.

This unusual behavior is due to the fact that when heated, its resistance changes from an insulating to a conducting state in a non-standard way, therefore, when temperature changes in the range of 30 degrees, its thermal radiation remains stable.

This feature makes it possible to use samarium nickel oxide as camouflage, hiding objects from infrared cameras, and also to create more advanced filters and optical limiters to protect sensors.

Recall that engineers recently made a new material from aluminum and carbon nanotubes that absorbs 99.96% of light and 10 times the blackest of all that was created before.

text: Ilya Bauer, photo: Purdue University

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Hawaii Opens Regulatory Sandbox for Digital Currency Issuers

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The Chinese made a cardboard bike helmet that protects the head as well as the traditional one

The Chinese made a cardboard bike helmet that protects the head as well as the traditional one

Researchers have developed and successfully tested a new bicycle helmet that uses honeycomb and corrugated cardboard instead of polymer foam.

Nowadays, bicycle helmets are usually made from expanded polystyrene, but due to environmental pollution, scientists around the world are trying to replace  common plastic with recyclable materials.

Crash tests conducted by a team at the Center for Injury Biomechanics and Vehicle Safety at Tianjin University of Science and Technology have shown that, when properly designed, a bicycle helmet made only of cardboard can reduce the likelihood of head injury by 63% and loss of consciousness by 86% at any the form of an accident. It is able to effectively withstand external shocks in a short period of time and has good shock-absorbing characteristics..

Such a helmet has not only a low production cost, but is also made of environmentally friendly material..

The Chinese made a cardboard bike helmet that protects the head as well as the traditional one

We also previously reported on the development of a new security application that warns a pedestrian wearing headphones about an approaching vehicle within a radius of 60 m.

text: Ilya Bauer, photo: pinimg

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Researchers have created metal structures with a hydrophobic surface that repel water so well that they don’t sink even after repeated dives or punctures..

To do this, scientists, using femtesecond laser pulses, etched complex micro- and nanostructures on the surface of two aluminum plates, which hold air and prevent getting wet. Then we connected them with the treated sides inward to prevent external wear and abrasion of the water-repellent «relief».

The plates are spaced apart to trap enough air to keep the structure buoyant, effectively creating a waterproof air pocket.

According to a team of researchers from the University of Rochester, even after being immersed in water for 2 months, metal structures quickly floated to the surface after removing the load from them. The plates also retained their properties after many punctures and damage, as they continued to trap air between the remaining sectors..

However, the team found that after being immersed in water for extended periods of time, hydrophobic surfaces gradually begin to lose their hydrophobic properties..

Scientists have invented metal structures that won't sink

Scientists say that with the help of such structures it is possible to create unsinkable ships or electronic control devices that can swim in the ocean for a long time..

We also previously reported on the development of a foam metal that stops 50 caliber bullets as well as steel sheet of the same thickness, but weighs half as much..

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Currently, many sensors and actuators based on artificial synthetic materials have been developed, but they have a rather high cost and are not environmentally friendly.

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