Physicists began to synthesize superheavy elements of the eighth period of the periodic table

A team of Japanese nuclear physicists began experimenting with collisions between small and large atomic nuclei to synthesize new superheavy elements and discover new chemistry.

So far, scientists have managed to create all the elements in the first seven rows. – from hydrogen with one proton to oganesson, which has 118. Further research is hampered by the instability of superheavy elements due to the large number of protons. For example, the most stable isotope of nionium (113 protons) has a half-life of almost eight seconds, while for oganesson it is about 0.7 ms..

However, theorists believe that this figure may change for more massive nuclei, which will allow to obtain long-lived superheavy elements that will open up a new type of chemistry with longer reactions. To do this, scientists first need to know the repulsive force that the nuclei experience when approaching.

A team of researchers from Japan’s Institute for Physico-Chemical Research (RIKEN) said they have already begun experiments to collide small nuclei of neon, magnesium and calcium with larger atoms of curium and uranium, measuring how they scatter. Scientists estimate that the synthesis of one atom of a superactinoid will take more than three months..

 

Physicists began to synthesize superheavy elements of the eighth period of the periodic table

If the observed tendencies of the repulsive barrier and deformation are also valid for heavier nuclei, then the calculation of the optimal collision energy will take about a day. In the short term, the team plans to use this knowledge to create new elements. under the numbers 119 and 120. However, it will take at least a decade to discover stable isotopes of superheavy nuclei of the eighth period, since they will have unusual properties.

We also previously reported on the development of a new nuclear fusion method. using relativistic effects.

text: Ilya Bauer, photo: RIKEN, Getty Images

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New camouflage material hides objects from infrared cameras

Thermal Imaging – How to use it and how to hide from it

Researchers have discovered a material with quantum properties that can mask the thermal radiation of objects, making them invisible to infrared cameras.

In recent years, scientists have developed several graphene and black silicon materials that manipulate electromagnetic radiation to hide the thermal signature. However, the new quantum material does this in a completely unique way, which contradicts intuition, but not the laws of physics..

New camouflage material hides objects from infrared cameras

A group of materials scientists from the University of Wisconsin at Madison and Purdue University studied the properties of samarium nickel oxide, which, as temperature rises, transforms from an insulator into an unusual conductor. In the course of experiments, scientists found that thanks to this property, the material is able to separate temperature and thermal radiation..

When in the laboratory they heated a film of samarium nickel oxide on sapphire substrates, then, despite the actual increase in temperature, its infrared radiation remained practically unchanged. within a certain temperature range. Moreover, between 105 °C and 135 °C it barely warmed up at all.

This unusual behavior is due to the fact that when heated, its resistance changes from an insulating to a conducting state in a non-standard way, therefore, when temperature changes in the range of 30 degrees, its thermal radiation remains stable.

This feature makes it possible to use samarium nickel oxide as camouflage, hiding objects from infrared cameras, and also to create more advanced filters and optical limiters to protect sensors.

Recall that engineers recently made a new material from aluminum and carbon nanotubes that absorbs 99.96% of light and 10 times the blackest of all that was created before.

text: Ilya Bauer, photo: Purdue University

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Hawaii Opens Regulatory Sandbox for Digital Currency Issuers

Hawaii Government Announces Regulatory Sandbox for Digital Currency Companies.

Hawaii Opens Regulatory Sandbox for Digital Currency Issuers

The two-year initiative will allow issuers to operate in the state without a special government license to transfer funds. According to the governor, «Digital Currency Innovation Lab» should help government officials better understand the functioning of this asset class and make the necessary changes to the legislation.

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The Chinese made a cardboard bike helmet that protects the head as well as the traditional one

The Chinese made a cardboard bike helmet that protects the head as well as the traditional one

Researchers have developed and successfully tested a new bicycle helmet that uses honeycomb and corrugated cardboard instead of polymer foam.

Nowadays, bicycle helmets are usually made from expanded polystyrene, but due to environmental pollution, scientists around the world are trying to replace  common plastic with recyclable materials.

Crash tests conducted by a team at the Center for Injury Biomechanics and Vehicle Safety at Tianjin University of Science and Technology have shown that, when properly designed, a bicycle helmet made only of cardboard can reduce the likelihood of head injury by 63% and loss of consciousness by 86% at any the form of an accident. It is able to effectively withstand external shocks in a short period of time and has good shock-absorbing characteristics..

Such a helmet has not only a low production cost, but is also made of environmentally friendly material..

The Chinese made a cardboard bike helmet that protects the head as well as the traditional one

We also previously reported on the development of a new security application that warns a pedestrian wearing headphones about an approaching vehicle within a radius of 60 m.

text: Ilya Bauer, photo: pinimg

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Scientists have invented metal structures that won’t sink

Unsinkable Metal

Researchers have created metal structures with a hydrophobic surface that repel water so well that they don’t sink even after repeated dives or punctures..

To do this, scientists, using femtesecond laser pulses, etched complex micro- and nanostructures on the surface of two aluminum plates, which hold air and prevent getting wet. Then we connected them with the treated sides inward to prevent external wear and abrasion of the water-repellent «relief».

The plates are spaced apart to trap enough air to keep the structure buoyant, effectively creating a waterproof air pocket.

According to a team of researchers from the University of Rochester, even after being immersed in water for 2 months, metal structures quickly floated to the surface after removing the load from them. The plates also retained their properties after many punctures and damage, as they continued to trap air between the remaining sectors..

However, the team found that after being immersed in water for extended periods of time, hydrophobic surfaces gradually begin to lose their hydrophobic properties..

Scientists have invented metal structures that won't sink

Scientists say that with the help of such structures it is possible to create unsinkable ships or electronic control devices that can swim in the ocean for a long time..

We also previously reported on the development of a foam metal that stops 50 caliber bullets as well as steel sheet of the same thickness, but weighs half as much..

text: Ilya Bauer, photo: University of Rochester

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Scientists have created a “paper” of pollen that changes shape in response to external stimuli

Class 6 Science RESPONSE TO STIMULUS – Erudex Learning App

Researchers have created a paper-like material from pollen that bends and curls in response to changing environmental conditions.

Currently, many sensors and actuators based on artificial synthetic materials have been developed, but they have a rather high cost and are not environmentally friendly.

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In the second quarter, the value of Bitcoin transactions exceeded $ 180 billion

Bitcoin transaction value exceeded $ 180 billion in the second quarter

According to The Block, in the second quarter of 2020, more than $ 180 billion or almost $ 2 billion of transactions were made on the bitcoin network every 24 hours..

The study showed that compared to the previous period, the level of commission for operations increased by 136%, and the exchange activity – by 3%. At the same time, there was an influx of cryptocurrency in the Lightning Network, as a result of which the capacity of the second tier network reached an annual maximum..

In the second quarter, the value of Bitcoin transactions exceeded $ 180 billion

The Block also notes that over the past 12 months, the number of addresses where BTC is stored for at least a year has grown by 22% and reached 20.3 million in June..

At the same time, bitcoin is less and less often compared with the digital analogue of gold, not only because of the high volatility, but also because of the increased correlation with the S index.&P 500. June average was 65.8%, with a maximum of 66.2% on the last day of the month.

Earlier, we also reported that the return on investment in the MTC over the past five years is 70 times higher than that of the stock markets..

text: Ivan Malichenko, photo: Shutterstock

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The Chinese company announced the creation of a car that can travel 500 km on water

Brazil: This motorbike runs on WATER!

The Chinese company announced the creation of a car that can travel 500 km on water

The Chinese company Qingnian Cars presented a prototype of a vehicle that can travel from 300 to 500 km only on water.

During a demonstration of the car, Qingnian Cars CEO Peng Kyangnian explained that the engine runs on hydrogen, which is formed by a chemical reaction when a catalyst reacts with a mixture of aluminum powder and water. According to the description, the prototype can travel up to 500 km at 300-400 liters of H2O.

The automaker plans to recycle the reagents used in the process.

Peng Kyangnyan added that the cost of operating the transport and the production of new engines will not be high, but did not name the exact amount, citing trade secrets. Long-range test data are also not released..

Photo of Qingnian Cars prototype.

The Chinese company announced the creation of a car that can travel 500 km on water

Qingnian Cars has been developing a new technology together with scientists from Hubei University of Technology since 2006..  According to them, transport will be able to use ordinary water, which does not need to be exported, and by-products from the operation of the car do not pollute the environment..

Despite no open demonstration of the prototype, engineers have not yet talked about mass production, and some Chinese have called the development inconclusive due to the lack of evidence of successful long-distance travel..

Major car manufacturers are also gradually moving towards green technologies. By 2039, Mercedes-Benz plans to end sales of vehicles with a traditional combustion engine and fully switch to zero-emission models.

text: Ilya Bauer, photo: autocentre, Baidu

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Russian physicists have developed a new way to cool a quantum computer

A group of scientists described the technology of remote control of the entropy of specific qubits, which actually locally violates the second law of thermodynamics in the system. The device can be applied to point cooling of quantum computers, to create nanocoolers or heaters.

One of the basic laws of physics states that disorder of an energetically isolated system cannot spontaneously decrease. However, researchers from the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology with colleagues from the United States and Switzerland have presented a device that allows you to manipulate this state, changing it on demand. To be precise, they described the spatially-separated quantum demon Maxwell, acting at a distance of up to 5 meters.

As a qubit, the scientists used a tiny superconducting device made up of thin layers of aluminum on a silicon chip. The system is called an artificial atom because, under ultra-low temperature conditions, it behaves like an elementary particle with two energy levels. Once connected, the qubits begin to exchange virtual photons, which leads to a change in their state.

The second device (demon), brought to a clean state, transfers it to the first, and itself becomes «dirty». In this case, the working qubit decreases its entropy, while maintaining the same energy. Essentially the second device «eats» disorder.

An example is billiard balls, which, after being hit with a cue, fly in all directions. The described technology makes all the balls return to their original state, in fact, turning back the clock..

Since qubits are in a pure state for only a fraction of a second, manipulations can be performed many times. In practice, this can be used to develop algorithmic cooling of a quantum computer, a subroutine that can purposefully cool individual qubits, reducing the amount of noise and errors..

You can also create a microscopic refrigerator that affects not the entire volume, but specific points. Since the process can be started in the opposite direction, not only cooling is possible, but also heating..

When working with two qubits, the effect was achieved in 85% of cases, and with the addition of the third, the effect was only 50%. However, scientists plan to reduce the error rate by improving the equipment used..

Russian physicists have developed a new way to cool a quantum computer

Physicists have recently developed an equally amazing device – a photoacoustic pump. laser-driven that is capable of moving fluids in any direction without moving parts or electrical contacts.

text: Ilya Bauer, photo: Getty Images

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Scientists erased memories from rats with CRISPR genome editing

Genome Editing with CRISPR-Cas9

Neuroscientists have developed technology to remove pathological memories for the treatment of PTSD, drug addiction and certain chronic diseases.

Negative emotions, such as fear, are necessary for our survival, but when a person cannot cope with them and forget, then this can cause various disturbances. Treating pathological memories can relieve conditions such as PTSD, chronic pain and stress, and drug addiction.

Researchers at Peking University have developed a new system for modifying the genome in various types of cells, including neurons in the brain. They reported the successful use of this CRISPR-cas9-based technology to kill genes related to fear memory in laboratory rats..

Physicians around the world are currently experimenting with genome editing to treat chronic and congenital diseases. However, applying similar methods to people related to a number of ethical issues.

Scientists erased memories from rats with CRISPR genome editing

text: Ilya Bauer, photo: TASS

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Invented durable eco-friendly foam that insulates better than traditional

Insulation – types, features, and flaws

Researchers have developed an environmentally friendly plant-based material that outperforms traditional foam in thermal and mechanical performance. It retains its properties under the influence of water and high temperature.

Expanded polystyrene (traditional styrofoam) is used in a variety of applications, from materials for construction and transportation to coffee cups and packaging. However, it depends on oil, contains toxic substances and pollutes the environment..

Working to create an effective alternative, a team at Washington State University developed a material that is 74% cellulose nanocrystals from wood pulp. Another 7.5% is accounted for by polyvinyl alcohol, which binds to nanocellulose crystals and increases the elasticity of the structure. The remaining 18.5% is occupied by the crosslinking agent.

The resulting composite foam has a homogeneous cellular structure, making it a good insulator. Its thermal conductivity is 0.027 W / (m ∙ K), which is superior to that of traditional expanded polystyrene. The new material is also very lightweight and can withstand the weight 200 times its own, without changing the shape. It decomposes well and does not form polluting ash when burned.

The team also developed a simple manufacturing process using water as a solvent and obtained cellulose nanocrystals by acid hydrolysis..

Next, scientists will work on increasing the strength and durability of the material, developing new compositions. They also plan to use inexpensive raw materials so that eco-friendly foam can be produced commercially..

Recall that earlier researchers have made thin polymer films that conduct heat better than many metals and ceramics..

Invented durable eco-friendly foam that insulates better than traditional

text: Ilya Bauer, photo: Washington State University

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